the invention of concrete

The Invention of Concrete: A Complete History

It may not concern most of us, but it may make most of us curious that,  ‘ What is concrete? And how concrete is made? So, it is time to get all the information on the topic.

Concrete was invented in about 1300 BC. When Middle Eastern builders found that they glazed the outsides of their pounded-clay fortresses and home walls with thin, damp glazing of burned limestone, it reacts chemically with gases in the air to form a hard, protective surface. [It will sound better here]

 Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate connected with a fluid cement paste that rough over time.  And Concrete comprises three primary sections: water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel), and glue. Cement, usually in powder form, acts as an attaching agent when mixed with water and aggregates. 

Combining these simple ingredients produces an exothermic reaction that creates one of the essential building materials in human history.

Similar to this there are many more information we are going to give you in this article. Let’s get started; [people get a head start if there is a punch line like this]

The Invention of Concrete: Concrete’s evaluation over the years

the invention of concrete
source: https://www.nachi.org/

Over the years, concrete turned into a more efficient material. We went from Concrete use of natural substances similar to cement, with human activities, to strengthen raw materials. Our methods for the processing of concrete are rendered as technology has progressed. In the late 1800s, steel-reinforced concrete was produced in Germany, France and the USA.

It was used at the period for industrial buildings but would also play a role in the buildings and other buildings. The Portland concrete created by Joseph Aspin is not the same as today’s one. We know that the high temperatures we do today for the heat materials may not have reached it.

We now have a default cement formula. The American Society of Testing and Materials and the National Bureau of Standards were established in 1917. Builders have built thin-coated concrete at the same time. The dome’s roofs were made of a thin shell of concrete, the arches, and other similar structures. The lightweight of thin-shell concrete makes the remainder of the building more collapsible as a heavy material needs not be supported.

Concrete history

Concrete history
source: https://www.ncpedia.org/

In this section, we will learn about concretes usage over the centuries. This information will help you to understand the technical use of concrete.

3000 BC- Egyptian Pyramids

More than 5000 years ago, the Egyptians constructed pyramids using early concrete shapes. Mud and stubble shaped bricks and rendered concreter with gypsum and lime.

300 BC- 476 AD-Roman Architecture

The ancient Romans ripened to create many architectural wonders such as the Pantheon, considerably similar to the modern cement material. They also used animal products as an early admixture in their cement.

1836- Cement Testing

The first compressive strength and tensile experiments were performed in Germany in 1836. This was the first concrete reinforced bridge and remained for 100 years after its completion.

1889- Alvord Lake Bridge

Ernest L. Ransome designed the first Rebar Bridge in 1889. (the inventor of Rebar structure). The Alvord Lake Bridge is a small bridge over the Footbridge to the Golden Gate Park in America in San Francisco. It is now a milestone in civil engineering designated by the American civil engineering society.

1903-The Ingalls Building

The first concrete high rise was built in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Ingalls Building has sixteen stories and was a remarkable engineering feat of its time. 

1908- Concrete Homes

In 1908, the famed American inventor patented the buildings with a single concrete placement. In the end, a huge disappointment, but, the concept was well ahead of time, and still stand confident of its concrete buildings. Edison founded the Portland Cement Company in 1899. 

1915- Colored Concrete

The company was founded at Dearborn Street in Chicago in 1915 and later called L.M. Lynn Mason Scofield. Scofield Company. Scofield Corporation. It was the first company to create a concrete colour. His first paint hardeners (cement, pigment and aggregate diffused on fresh concrete surfaces to the colour and harden the body), integral colour wax, screwdrivers and chemical stains were included. He relocated the business to Los Angeles in 1920 and believed southern California to be a better market than the rest of the world. As they designed their houses, Charlie Chaplin, Groucho Marx, Mary Pickford and other famous people used vast quantities of his goods.

1936- Hoover Dam

Hoover Dam is a cemented arch-gravity dam on the border between Arizona and the U.S. state, in the Colorado River Black Canyon. Designed during the Great Depression from 1931 to 1936 and dedicated to President Franklin D. Roosevelt on 30 September 1935.

Its building resulted from a vast undertaking involving thousands of employees, which took over 100 lives. It was first known as the Boulder Dam in 1933 and was renamed by a joint resolution of Congress of 1947 officially the Hoover Dam by President Herbert Hoover.

Decorative Concrete
source: https://pickytop.com/

1950’s- Decorative Concrete

The concrete and cement history of the Egyptian pyramids is outlined in an immersive timeframe of current decorative concrete with… The first tensile and compressive strength test was performed in Germany in 1836. Architectural concrete pavement impressed in Monterey, California in the mid-1950s.

1967- Concrete Sports Dome

In the southeastern United States, the Georgia Dome was a domed arena. Atlanta is situated. Moreover, since 2009 the Georgia Dome has also hosted various soccer matches with over 50,000 people. Theo’s content later plummeted with sufficient force to break sitting on the top decks and knock holes into concrete floors.

1992-Tallest Concrete Building

The tallest reinforced concrete building was built in Chicago, Illinois. The 65-story building is known only by its street address, 311 South Wacker Drive.

1999- Polished Concrete

1999 saw the introduction of RetroPlate 99. Concrete is honoured for introducing polished concrete to architects and designers on a broad scale, mainstream, and insider polished concrete. In the early recovery and polishing trade, early concrete polishers and distributors were involved.

2010- Starts offering

Giatec has been set up and starts to provide the concrete industry with a lot of solutions. When Alizadeh was an undergraduate civil engineering student, his definite obsession began. He was part of an American Concrete Institute competition that sought to build high-strength concrete. The 3rd place was his squad.

2016- 3D printing building

The first fully functional building in the world in Dubai is built. Burj Khalifa was constructed for the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center by Adrian Smith, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. The building is situated on Emirates Towers’ premises and will be the Dubai Future BaBase’s temporary homeIt was named the “Office of the Future.” In collaboration with Thornton Tomasetti and Syska Hennessy, the Gensler global architectural company designed the framework for structural and MEP work.

Technological milestone

Concrete technology slid backwards in the Middle Ages. The building of pozzolana cement was disorientated after the Roman Empire’s decay in 476 AD.

Only in 1793, when John Smeaton discovered a more modern way of making hydraulic cement lime, the technology took a significant leap forward. He used calcareous clay. This material was used in the Eddystone Lighthouse’s historic restoration in Cornwall, England.

Concrete for industrial buildings was established in the 19th century. In 1850, Francois Coignet made the first widespread use of Portland cement to build houses in England and France, incorporating steel rods to avoid spreading external walls.

You might be interested to read also: Where Does Concrete Come From?

Some Important FAQs

Go through this question and answer section. These will help you to understand the above discussion if you have any confusion. Apart from any doubts and the debate, we have tried to cover them if you have any other queries. 

Who invented concrete first?

In 1824 Joseph Aspdin invented Portland cement by burning finely until the carbon dioxide was removed. Aspdin titled the adhesive after the high-quality building stones quarried in Portland, England. In the 19th Century, concrete was used mainly for industrial buildings.

Why was the invention of concrete important?

Roman concrete is significantly more impenetrable to erosion by seawater than modern concrete. By using pyroclastic materials, that react with seawater starts to form Al-tobermorite crystals over time. The widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day.

What was the purpose of concrete?

In the construction industry, concrete is most frequently used as the foundation for most structures. It is also pre-owned in superstructure construction through structural concrete, slab construction, stair construction, and architectural features.

Why is concrete so strong?

The tricalcium silicate compound is manageable for most of the toughness of concrete, by releasing calcium ions, hydroxide ions, and heat. Once the material is saturated with calcium and hydroxide ions, calcium hydroxide begins to crystallise, and calcium silicate hydrate forms.

Is Roman concrete still used today?

In Modern life, concrete use in everything from roads to buildings to bridges can break down in as few as 50 years. But more than a thousand years after the western Roman Empire crumbled to dust, and its concrete structures are still standing.

Conclusion

So above, we discussed and gave information about the history of whole concrete. We think it will help gain knowledge. These modern and historical structures wouldn’t be possible if the concrete were not made. The height, strength, size, and more are a display of concrete’s abilities. The staff’s practicality does not die out after the B.C. years. Today and far into the future, we will continue using concrete to construct innovative buildings, homes, apartments, hotels, sculptures, and plenty.

Concrete is a stunning product that has become the single most widely used building material in the world. Concrete’s future is bright as new technologies improve sustainability, strength, and potential new concrete uses.